ISSN 2707-0476 (Online)

University Library at a New Stage of Social Communications Development. Conference Proceedings, 2019, No IV

UDC 027.7(430)


Dnipro Central Municipal Library (Dnipro, Ukraine),



Dnipro Central Municipal Library (Dnipro, Ukraine)

e-mail, ORCID ID 0000-0002-9941-4312

GöTTINGEN State and University




Objective.The article informs about Göttingen State and University Library (Germany) as about a place, where specific features of public and scientific library are taken into account. Methods. The article is based on personal impressions of a visit to the library of one of the authors. Results. The library keeps its centuries-old traditions and is modern space for individual and group work. Conclusions. The article was an attempt to describe the library's digital and paper resources as an accumulation of experience that could be embodied in the university libraries of Ukraine.

Keywords: Göttingen State and University Library; Germany; databases; electronic resources; archive; digital project


Göttingen is a medieval town located in the south of Lower Saxony. The city is considered to be the fifth largest city and is a university city, with Göttingen having a total population of 320,000. Of these, two-thirds are students, and the other one-third are either teaching or serving. The university was founded in 1734 and at the same time a library was founded. The Göttingen State and University Library (German Niedersächsische Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Göttingen) is the central scientific library of Göttingen University, one of the largest universal libraries in Germany. In this library there are more than 7 million copies, 3,100 incunabula and, most importantly, it was formed then on an innovative principle: on content, as opposed to picking by the rarity or value of the cover. (“Göttingen State and University Library”, 2019; Kind-Doerne, 1986)

Most of the books were purchased with the generous donation of the Hanover statesman Gerlach Adolph von Münchhausen, who was its founder and curator. The library became the basis of the private library of Joachim von Bulow (1650-1724) and the curator of the library sought to give it the historical name "Bibliotheca Buloviana". This name has not come to our day. Each year, the University has allocated money to buy new books, and now the entire historical part of the fund is stored in the Pauline Church. The directors at the libraries were impressive and all were philologists. Thus, its first director, Johann Matthias Gesner, had extensive scholarly connections with European scholars, and this provided numerous gifts, including a complete edition of the writings of Cardinal Angelo Maria Quirini (†1755), the Bishop of Brescia and later director of the Bibliotheca Vaticana. Although there is no record of the addition of Gesner's library, by the year of his death the stock was estimated at more than 50,000 volumes. The second director of the library, Christian Heine, organized an interlibrary loan for scientists, a catalog system for orientation in the fund and during his time the collection increased from 60 thousand storage units to 200 thousand units. From 1830 to 1837, Jacob Grimm, and in fact the Grimm brothers operated this library. Although working at the library, Wilhelm Grimm commemorated his visit to the University of Göttingen by becoming a scholarly discipline at the University at his initiative. In Germany, this fact is remembered. On the contrary, professional discipline was read by the author of the largest and most complete dictionary of German. By the way, textbooks on German grammar, a book on German mythology and the judicial system of ancient times were written in Göttingen. (Göttingen State and University Library, 2019a; Mittler, 2000)


The article is based on personal impressions of a visit to the library of one of the authors.

Results and Discussion

The library consists of several buildings, namely:

  • Central Library;

  • forestry library;

  • cultural library;

  • medical library;

  • Library of the Faculty of Physics;

  • Faculty of Economics and Sociology;

  • Waldweg Library;

  • and the Reading Room in the Faculty of History.

The library also stores several archives and archival collections, such as

  • collection of maps;

  • a collection of German printed editions of the 18th century from 1701 to 1800;

  • collection of mathematical heritage.

The library also has digital collections, the editions are freely available over the Internet and intranets. For example, out of 3,100 incunabula, 2,000 were digitized. (Göttingen State and University Library, 2019b; Bargheer & Ceynowa, 2005)

Of the digital collections, is a very interesting one. This is the address of the Göttingen Digital Centre, which has a collection of about 15 million digitized pages, printed and handwritten. The Library also has access to the Central Register of Digitized Prints,, which stores digital copies of print media from the 15th century. There is a private portal of collections of the University of Göttingen of various subjects. For scholars there is access to theses of the university. There is also hosting of licenses, which is useful for scientists. The University Library provides access to German databases that may be of use to scholars or students. For example, there is a digital database of manuscripts or a digital database of the heritage of monasteries, colleges and church collections since Roman times. It is also called Germania sacra, there are also professional virtual libraries. For example, is a library of both visualizations and repositories. The University has its own archive of publications and photocopying is free of charge. The University has been engaged in digitization since 1997, but in a systematic and strategic way.

It also has its own publishing house for publishing textbooks for students and scientists Reading online is free, you have to pay for printing. Books, namely anthologies, collections of materials of conferences, monographs are published in five languages. Most are German, but there are both Arabic and Persian as well.

The University of Göttingen Library supports Open Science and Open Access. Librarians are teaching and providing students with courses in research methods, Citavi and Zotero software, finding the right sources. The library has its own media resources for learning and teaching. The lectures and excursions last from 30 to 90 minutes and are conducted in English.

The new library building, or as it is called the Central Library, was commissioned in 1986. Information on the Library and the Terms of Use is available in English and German. Special computers with navigation are also bilingual. There are giant signs of silence, and a full library of people and no librarian. The silence is truly complete and the library does not make mass events.

But if a group of students seeking communication gathers, they occupy a special place with sound absorbing screens and study together. The library is full of zones and spaces for independent work of students. The library is fully computerized and fulfils all the operations through the electronic catalogue: accounting, issuance, etc.

The books are issued and returned by the readers themselves with the use of a reader card. A card reader is also required to use lockers for personal effects and clothing. Reading rooms are closed by glass sound-absorbing walls. You can sit on chairs or on fitballs. It is a good idea: one is studying and training at the same time. Photocopiers, scans and all other operations students do on their own (you can find detailed reference books for this on the library's website, there is also a video), the scanner specifically has a holder for books to prevent them from being destroyed.

Navigation is laid on the floor, so everything is clear. All shelves have autonomous lighting, diode lamps are mounted on the previous shelf from below and everything was visible even to me. The decorations in the library are decorated in medieval style. The citizens of Göttingen are very proud of their city! Bronze figurines span the entire history of the city from its inception. But instead of horses, a herd of bicycles stand waiting for their owners.

And the entrance to the library is striking: it is completely covered with billboards of events that will be of interest to the locals and students.


The article was an attempt to describe the library's digital and paper resources as an accumulation of experience that could be embodied in the university libraries of Ukraine.


Bargheer, M., & Ceynowa, K. (Eds.). (2005). Tradition und Zukunft – die Niedersächsische Staats und Universitätsbibliothek Göttingen. Göttingen: Universitätsverlag. doi: (in German)

Göttingen State and University Library. (2019). Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Retriеved from

Göttingen State and University Library. (2019a). History. Retriеved from

Göttingen State and University Library. (2019b). News. Retriеved from

Kind-Doerne, Ch. (1986). Die Niedersächsische Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Göttingen. Ihre Bestände und Einrichtungen in Geschichte und Gegenwart. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. (in German)

Mittler, E. (2000). Niedersächsische Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Göttingen. In B. Hagenau (Ed.). Regionalbibliotheken in Deutschland (pp. 187-195). Frankfurt am Main: Klostermann. (in German)


Дніпровська центральна міська бібліотека (Дніпро, Україна)



Дніпровська центральна міська бібліотека (Дніпро, Україна)

e-mail, ORCID ID 0000-0002-9941-4312

Нижньосаксонська земельна й

університетська бібліотека в

(Німеччина) як взірець

успішного симбіозу

муніцИпальної та

університетської бібліотеки

Мета. Основною метою статті є характеристика Нижньосаксонської земельної й університетської бібліотеки в Геттінгені (Німеччина) як такої, де враховано особливості функцій публічної та наукової бібліотек. Методика. Викладену у статті інформацію отримано однією з авторок під час відвідування Нижньосаксонської земельної й університетської бібліотеки. Результати. Установлено, що досліджувана бібліотека зберігає вікові традиції і є сучасним простором для самостійної та групової роботи. Висновки. У статі висвітлено інформацію про цифрові й книжкові ресурси аналізованої бібліотеки як акумуляцію досвіду, можливого для втілення в університетських бібліотеках України.

Ключові слова: Нижньосаксонська земельна й університетська бібліотека; Німеччина; бази даних; електронні ресурси; архів; цифровий проект

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International © O. L. Stepaniuk, T. V. Kyrpyta, 2019


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